In contrast, the pore volume in the soil increases, for example, through the activity of earthworms, which promotes the exchange of gases and increases the soil’s permeability and water absorption capacity. In this way, earthworms contribute to improving soil fertility and protecting against soil erosion and flooding. However, the presence of earthworms in arable areas is dependent on organic substances in the soil and on soil density. Earthworms are also sensitive to vibration, such as the ground tremors caused by various soil processing activities.
Soil compression occurs when the weight of (agricultural) vehicles exceeds the load capacity of the soils to be tilled. In principle, compression may occur on all soil types, although fertile loessial soils and loams have a higher tolerance and hardly any loss of yield occurs. In addition, sustainable management methods and tilling techniques are generally used in agriculture, irrespective of the soil type. Productivity can also be improved by means of fertilisation adapted to the site and plants and through sustainable soil use.