Maize sowing is all about timing. Sowing too early can lead to poorer and delayed germination and irregular field emergence. In addition, the crop protection can be reduced and the root growth inhibited. This then leads to a lower nutrient intake. On the other hand, late sowing can lead to a lack of maturation as well as quality losses and structural damage. Thus, excessively warm soil promotes rapid germination and early development. Longer days increase the length growth, which leads to a higher ear shoot. Overall, the vegetation time cannot be optimally used. This results in insufficient starch deposits and may lead to lower quality in silage maize, for example.
When it comes to tilling, the timing is also crucial. The soil should end up loose and crumbly. Spring tilling measures are designed to promote the warming of the seed bed and the removal of excess water. The most promising maize sowing is carried out after soil-friendly manure fertilisation and tilling. In the process, the basic tilling can be done after the previous crop has been harvested and preserved through intercropping.
The quality of the maize sowing has a crucial impact on yield. Precision seeding and sowing density are key factors in plant development, cob formation and harvest yields. In addition to the sowing time, sowing depth is also significant for the yield, requiring precise placement without gaps or double occupancy. Lightweight soils require a placement depth of up to 6 cm and heavy soils up to 4 cm, so that the seeds are located near the water-bearing soil layers and are able to germinate. </text4>
Maize planting density
As well as site and sowing conditions, successful maize production depends on the number of plants per m2, according to the variety. This indicator is based on both water availability and the specific variety. When these are perfectly aligned, the genetic performance potential of the maize variety can be exploited to the full. Recommended planting densities range between 6 and 12 plants/m2, depending on the variety. Thus, a higher planting density should be selected for early-ripening varieties. The seed requirement can be calculated based on the desired plant count and individual site factors. The number of seeds to be sown should be higher than the planned stock density in the event of unfavourable site conditions, pest infestation or bird damage. However, the number of seeds to be sown should be selected to avoid excessive planting density, whereby any lack of water could result in increasing competition for water and nutrients, reduced length growth, reduced cob development and rapid maturation. In contrast, excessive planting density with good water availability can lead to increased competition for light, increased vegetative growth, inhibited cob development and poorer maturation.